Essen is a large city in the center of the Ruhr area and the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area. After Cologne, Düsseldorf and Dortmund, Essen is the fourth largest city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the upper centers. The district-free city in the district of Düsseldorf with its 582,760 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) is one of the ten largest cities in Germany. Essen is an important industrial and business location and is the seat of well-known large companies. In 1958 the city became the seat of the newly founded bistum of Essen.
coordinates: 51° 27′ N, 7° 1′ E
|Height:||116 m a.s.l. NHN|
|inhabitants:||582,760 (31) Dec. 2019)|
|population density:||2771 inhabitants per km2|
|primaries:||0201, 02054, 0209|
|Vehicle registration number:||E|
|municipal code:||05 1 13 000|
|urban structure:||9 districts with|
|Mayor:||Thomas Kufen (CDU)|
|Location of Essen in North Rhine-Westphalia and the district of Düsseldorf|
The town of an der Ruhr, which dates back to the Frauenstiftung Essen, founded before 850, is a member of the Landschaftsverband Rheinland and the headquarters of the regional association Ruhr. As part of the RUHR.2010 project - European Capital of Culture, Essen was the European Capital of Culture in 2010 on behalf of the entire Ruhr region. Because of its central location in the Ruhr area, Essen is also considered a "secret capital of the Ruhr area".
In addition to the monastery of Essen, founded by Liudger around 800, was a center of the late antique-early Christian tradition of text. 14. century by Emperor Charles IV. Essen was a forge in the late Middle Ages and, with industrialization, became one of the most important centers of the mining industry in Germany (with its own Kux exchange). After a massive decline in heavy industry from the mid-1960's onwards, Essen developed a strong service sector as a result of structural change. Today, the Essen Cathedral and the oldest preserved full-plastic Marienfigure of the Christian West (Golden Madonna) remind of the medieval history of the city. At the same time, monuments to industrial culture testify to their heavy industrial past, especially the UNESCO World Heritage Zeche Zollverein. The town is also characterized by distinctive high-rise buildings.
With the Museum Folkwang, Essen has a renowned collection of modern paintings, sculptures, graphics and photographs. The Opera House, Folkwang University of the Arts, Grillo Theater and the German Plaza Museum are prestigious art and cultural institutions.
After having been European Capital of Culture in 2010, Essen was awarded the European Green Capital Award in 2017.
food in the Rhein-Ruhr metropolitan area
Ruhr in Kettwig
Brewery in Essen
Stone with billboard, highest elevation of Essen
Essen is located in the center of the Ruhr area, mostly north of the Ruhr, which forms the Baldeneysee, among other things, between the districts of coppersdreh, Heisingen, Fish Lakes and WERE.
Essen is located in the Rhein-Ruhr metropolitan region, an economic region and an urban conurbation in the west of Germany. The region is one of the largest compaction areas within the European megalopolis and is therefore the largest metropolitan area in Germany. In the 20 circular towns and 10 districts of the region, about 11 million inhabitants live on almost 10,000 km² (as of 2005). About nine million people live within a 50-kilometer radius of Essen. Essen is one of the four major centers of the Ruhr area, next to Dortmund, Duisburg and Bochum.
The median altitude of the city is 116 meters above sea level. No. The highest elevation of the city area is in Heidhausen and is 202.5 meters above sea level. NN, the lowest point in Karnap is 26.5 meters above sea level. No. The geographical center of Essen is located in Rüttenscheid in the area of Müller-Wreslau-Strasse and Wittenbergstraße. The location of the town on the northern border of the mountains determines the geographical plan of Essen and the entire Ruhr region, which has a clear east-west extension between Ruhrtal in the south via the light plateau to the Emschertalung in the north. The two rivers Ruhr and Emscher, which run from east to west, give the landscape its own shape. The Ruhr, coming from the Sauerland region, winds around the hills of the southern parts of the city and forms alluvial landscapes as well as the reservoirs Baldeneysee and Kettwiger See. The Emscher in the north and the Rhine-Herne Canal in parallel run straight through the city area and, like the Ruhr, cross the Rhine near Duisburg.
The largest area of the city is 21 kilometers north-south and 17 kilometers west-east. The length of the city border is 87 kilometers.
The entire urban area is home to a stream of about 275 kilometers long. The most famous waters in the north include the Emscher and the Rhine-Herne Canal, and in the south the Ruhr with Lake Baldeneysee and Lake Kettwig.
In the north of the city are the brooks, characterized by industrialization. Many of the streams are used for wastewater treatment, but these are gradually being restored to a natural state as a result of the Emscher renaturation by the Emschergenossenschaft. Renaturation enhances the surroundings of the streams. These pools include the Borbeck Mühlenbach, the Berne, the Stoppenberger Bach and the Schwarzbach. Among the streams that have kept their natural state are the Hexbach, the Barchembach and the Schönebecke.
In the south of the city, the ruhr river flows along with nature-related streams, which are largely integrated into landscape protected areas. The bigger ones include the Hesperbach and the Deilbach, the smaller ones are the Oefter Bach, the Schuirbach and the Wolfsbach.
The metropolitan area of Essens consists of nine districts. There is a district representation in each district with 19 members. The district council is chaired by the district mayor. The districts are marked with Roman numbers and with a special name, some of which also consists of several districts.
The nine districts are divided into 50 districts. Most of the districts used to be self-employed municipalities and lost their autonomy through communal activities. The districts are marked with a two-digit Arabic number.
Due to its natural structure, the Essen image is clearly divided between the densely populated northern districts and the areas around the city center on the one hand and the southern part, characterized by extensive green areas and rather small-scale construction on the other.
The following cities border with food (clockwise from east):
- Hattingen (Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis)
- Velbert (Mettmann County)
- Heiligenhaus (district of Mettmann)
- Ratingen (Mettmann County)
- Mülheim an der Ruhr
- Gladbeck (Recklinghausen county)
The average temperature in food is 11.3 °C per year. The coldest month is January at 3.4 °C, the warmest month in July at 19.7 °C. The rainfall is 866 millimeters per year, with most rainfall, at 93 millimeters, falling in December.
Monthly average food temperatures and rainfall
Source: DWD, Data: 2015-2020 Wetterkontor.de,
See also: List of monuments in Essen
The oldest evidence of human activity in the area of today's urban area was found in 1926 during the construction of the Rhine-Herne Canal in Essen-Vogelheim: A blade of firestone, the Vogelheimer blade, and the bone of a cave lion from the Saale cold season, between 280,000 and 250,000 years old. Further discoveries from the Middle Ages could be made in other parts of the city until the recent times (become, about 200,000 B.P.; Dellwig, about 160,000 B.P.). One important finding in 1998 was a resting place of the younger Stone Age at the Ruhr Heights near Fish Lakes, estimated to be between 31,000 and 38,000 years old.
There are hardly any finds from the Middle Stone Age, except a few microliths. Due to the intensive use of the floors in the city area, these are no longer expected. Also missing finds from most parts of the Neolithic period, only for the time from 3000 v. c. There is evidence again, mostly graves or random findings like Beile from Firestone. The most important example of this period is the so-called "Steinkiste von Essen-Copper-Dreh", discovered in 1937, a small megalithgrave from the last part of the Neolithic era, which is considered "the oldest preserved edifice".
Essen was located in the settlement area of several German tribes (Chatten, Brukterer, Marser), whose exact delimitation is however difficult.
At the beginning of our time, the Alteburg in the south of Essen was founded, which was buried in large parts in the 1920s and 1930s. The castle was probably used until the 8th century. To the east is the Manrenburg, which probably dates from the 8th century. the 19th century.
In 845 a noble family founded the monastery of the later Bishop of Hildesheim, Altfrid, for the daughters of the Saxon aristocracy. The foundation probably took place on its own grounds, called Astnidhi or coenobium Astnide. The first two Ebtisans, called Gersuith, belonged to this aristocratic group. The monastery was not a monastery but a kind of place for unmarried daughters and widows of the high nobility. It was led by an Aegean who was the only one obliged to pay a chastity fee. In the area where the female pencil was built, there were already some farms. After a major fire in 1946, the Stiftskirche (church) was considerably expanded; Today, the Essen Cathedral is in the center of the city on its foundations. The first documented date for food to be supported is 898: At this time, the monastery was handed over by the king of Lothringes, Zwentibold, to the left of the Rhine. A document that appears to date back to 870 and describes the foundation of the foundation is today generally considered a forgery from the 11th century. century; whether it is based on earlier documents is controversial.
Since about 800 there was a little further south in the present part of the town of Become, the Monastery of Becoming, a Benedictine monastery founded by the Saint Liudger, which was intended to promote the mission work of the Saxons in the resin room (Helmstedt/Halberstadt). Both, the female pencil and the monastery, were already in a completely Christian environment.
One of the most remarkable ethereals was Mathilde. She was granddaughter of Emperor Otto I. and took over the funicular around 973. She directed the fortunes of the pen and the associated lands, almost 40 years. Mathilde added the church treasure to its most valuable pieces, including the Golden Madonna, the oldest fully plastic figure in the world. After Mathilde, Sophia took over the funicular, also granddaughter Ottos I. and daughter of Emperor Ottos II.
In 1041, under the abbey of the third lady of royal flowers in a row, Theophanu, a granddaughter of Ottos II, the food, mentioned as a city (civitas) in 1003, was given market law. Ten years later, in 1051, the Münster was changed and expanded once again: This cultivation was the eastern part with crypt, in which the Hl. Altfrid, Mathilde and Theophanu.
In 1216, the women's pencil, which until now was only an influential landowner, was officially confirmed as a prince's seat: King Frederick II she called the then-Abtissa in a letter Reichsfürstin - which she treated like the abbot of the nearby monastery Become.
Becoming the city and conflict with the pen
In 1244, the city wall was built jointly by the community of ministries of the foundation and the citizens of the city. The document about this is the first to contain the Essen city seal. The citizens of Essen developed a sense of citizenship.
In 1290, King Rudolf confirmed the princess's sovereignty over the city, but could not fully restore it: Citizenship was in conflict with the pen, and the growing city demanded self-government. In 1336, the first attempt was made to preserve the imperial power, but it took more than 40 years until 1377, when the emperor granted Charles IV. The city was the coveted title of the free imperial city five years after he confirmed the exact opposite to the then-acting deputy Elisabeth von Nassau.
14. In the 19th century, the first evidence of mining activities in Essen was also produced: In 1349, the Princess obtained the right to exploit the mineral resources, and in 1354 silver was proven to be mined. Coal was mentioned for the first time in Essen in 1371, but the first coal mine was only recorded for 1450.
The conflict between the city and the monastery over the supremacy of the region continued until the foundation was dissolved in 1803. There have always been legal disputes. One of the trials lasted 200 years, until the Reichskammergericht ruled in 1670 that the city had to give due obedience to the Aegean, but still be allowed to retain all the old customary rights. Thus the situation between the city and the pen until secularization remained unclear and competitive. In 1563 the city joined the Reformation (20 years before it had the imperial direct and thus the right to do so) and became evangelical. The church was built in the 11th century. It was built in the 16th century (originally St. Gertrudis). After the reformer of Essen, Heinrich Barenbroch, had given his first sermon in the Holy Spirit Chapel on April 28, 1563, he announced on April 2. This is the first time that the evening meal will be held in both guises. Already on 17. May Barenbroch had to leave the city because the Emperor had called for the protection of the klevak duke against the ecclesiastical innovators. Otherwise, the Catholic monastery, which had no troops with which anything could have been achieved, remained, but only to watch.
At the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th In the 19th century, food became a forge of arms. In 1570, the book-making craft prospered. In 1620, the Essen smiths produced 14,000 guns and pistols; The city became strategically interesting.
In the Thirty Years' War, the Protestant city and the pen were confronted. In 1623, the then embassy Maria Clara von Spaur, Pflaum and Vallier brought the Catholic Spaniards to Essen to fight the Protestant city in a counter-reformatory manner. In 1624, a law of recatholzation was passed, which controlled the church of the citizens. The city, not the pen, was responsible for the food and logistics of the occupying forces. In 1628, the Essen citizens brought an action before the Reichskammergericht.
In 1629 the Dutch stormed the city. The Ebtissin fled with the church treasure on the 4th of September. November of this year in Catholic Cologne. In the summer of 1631 she returned to Pappenheim in the wake of a Bavarian garrison under Gottfried Heinrich, but had to leave in September. Maria Clara died in Cologne in 1644.
In general, the people of Essen were severely beaten by the war, arrests, abductions of people and pressure for war.
After the peace in Westphalia, the troops remained for a while, the last troops left Essen on 9th. September 1650.
Resolution of the food and connection to Prussia
In 1802, the territory of the monastery of Essen was occupied by Prussian troops, as it was intended to compensate losses on the left bank of the Rhine during secularization, which was also confirmed by the state in the 1803 General Assembly of the Republic. Food and merchandise were incorporated into the county of Mark. In 1806 the occupation was followed by French troops. The Grand Duchy of Berg annexed food and goods on 3 November 1806. This was only confirmed in 1808 in a treaty between Mount and France, to which all Prussian provinces west of the Elbe were assigned in the peace of Tilsit in 1807. Thus food and becoming belonged to the Grand Duchy of Berg until the end of 1813, since then again to Prussia and since 1822 to the Prussian Rhine province. The city became part of the district of Duisburg. In 1859 the district of Essen was founded from the eastern district, from which the city of Essen ceased to be its own district with effect from 8 March 1873.
Food and the Krupp industry have influenced each other for many years. The Krupp family was established in the 16th century and held high office. Friedrich Krupp founded the Krupp cast steel factory in 1811, which brought bread and money to the city's residents for many years, although the business started not very well. The need for workers led to a marked increase in the population of food. The unique company expansion began in 1846 when Alfred Krupp succeeded in producing the seamless tire. The expansion led to the plant's growth to more than 300 hectares in 1873 to the west of the old part of the city, which had reached ten times the historic area. The era of the Krupp family ended only in 1967 with the abdication of Arndt von Bohlen und Halbach.
In 1892, the industrialist Friedrich Grillo founded a theater and opera house in the emerging city. The building, still known as the Grillo Theater, is a city theater, built in a neo-classical style in the city center and was inaugurated on 16 September 1892 with a performance by Gotthold Ephraim Lessings Minna von Barnhelm.
Until the end of the 19th century, the most dense railway network in the Ruhr area developed in the area of Essen. The Bergisch-Märkische Bahn was passed by the city center in 1862 and the Rheinische Bahn in 1866. These two railway lines formed the basis for the countless connections to the railway stations and industrial plants.
Several mines were built near the old town, such as the Victoria Mathias mine in the northern part of Altenessener Strasse, the Hercules mine in the eastern part of the city, and the Zur Hope mine west of the city center.
In 1865, the city of Essen took over the gas plant on the Union road (Thurmfeld).
In 1898 the joint-stock company Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk was founded. The plant was built on the Altenessener Strasse in the immediate vicinity of the Victoria Mathias mine.
World War I
Like the entire German Empire, food was hit by a war episode in August 1914. World War I became a material battle with a huge need for weapons and ammunition. The "cannon city" of Essen played a special role in this. In the Krupp cast steel factory massive guns like the thickness of Bertha were built. During the war, Krupp produced 22.5 million grenades and 25 million cartridges. As the war lasted, everyday life became increasingly difficult: Food prices rose, wages remained low. In August 1916, the first anti-war demonstration took place. The hunger crisis occurred in the winter of beet in 1916/1917, during which large parts of the Essen population suffered hardship. Working families impoverished. In February 1917, protest strikes against the food situation, based on workers at Krupp, led to at least 20,000 workers. At the end of the lost war in 1918, some 15,000 Essen soldiers had fallen, and about 5,000 were missing.
After the Kapp coup, a general strike took place in March 1920, followed by intense fighting between the workers and units of the police, free corps, and military.
On January 11, 1923, the occupation of the Ruhr took place through the invasion of the Ruhr area by French and Belgian troops. The French Prime Minister, Raymond Poincaré, believed that Germany was deliberately failing to meet the reparations set out in the Versailles peace agreement. They criticized in particular the lack of supplies of in-kind services such as coal, steel and wood, as the Allies switched to the demand for in-kind benefits due to the under-paid financial repairs by Germany. The tragedy of the CarSaturday in the morning of the 31st March 1923 was the sad highlight of this Franco-German confrontation. A small French military command had occupied the then troop car hall on Altendorfer Strasse to seize several vehicles there. As the factory's management called for the dissolution of the work, there was a turmoil, and the French felt in a bind. These seized to shoot themselves, the flight. This event resulted in 13 deaths and 28 injuries. There was great outrage at the bloodbath. The mourning train to the South West Cemetery April 1923 was one of the largest in the history of the city of Essen. The occupiers sentenced Gustav Krupp von Bohlen and Sechach and some of his directors to long prison sentences. The occupation of the Ruhr area ended in the summer of 1925.
phase of Nazi power occupation 1933/34
Heinrich Maria Martin Schäfer was appointed Mayor of Essen on 21 December 1932. After the Nazis took office under the command of Theodor Reismann-Grone, he was on leave on 5 April 1933 and later retired.
Essen was divided into 27 local groups of the NSDAP, whose services are listed in the Essen address book of 1939.
During the night of November 10, 1938, the synagogue was branded, but remained almost intact throughout the war (despite bombardments of the city center). The Steeler Synagogue was completely destroyed. A Jewish youth hostel built in 1932 was built on the site of the New Synagogue in 1959.
These Novemberpogroms in 1938, related to the night, are also called (rich-)crystal night or Reichspogromnacht night, and were co-organized and directed by the Nazi regime against Jews throughout the German empire.
All over Germany, these attacks marked the transition from discrimination against German Jews since 1933 to systematic persecution.
Forced labor camps and temporary storage facilities
Tens of thousands of forced laborers arrived in 350 camps in Essen during the Nazi period, forced to pay compulsory service to companies such as Krupp, Siemens and underground. In Essen there were several concentration camp sites in the Second World War, such as the Humboldtstrasse concentration camp (known as the SS labor command Fried). Krupp, Essen), the Gelsenberg warehouse and the Schwarze Poth concentration camp.
World War II
In September 1939, the Nazi regime began World War II. The attack on Poland and the Western campaign was quick and successful for the Wehrmacht; also the undertaking Weserwil. At the beginning of 1943, the Wehrmacht lost the Battle of Stalingrad (now Volgograd). confidence in victory in the German Reich, including in Essen, has declined; everyday stress has increased.
Essen was an important military target because of its major defense companies, in particular the Krupp cast steel factory. To deceive, the Krupp nightclub was built on the Rottberg, 10 km away. The attack on Essen marked the beginning of a five-month British air offensive, known as the Battle of the Ruhr, which lasted until mid-July 1943. The 26 air strikes in 1942 caused relatively little destruction; In 1943, major bombings followed. 5. In March 1943, more than 442 aircraft were launched at airports in eastern and central England. At 9 p.m., the Krupp plants and the city center of Essen were marked as targets with colored Christmas trees. Then around 360 bombers dropped 1100 tons of blasts and fire bombs into the city area in three waves within an hour. At least 457 people died and more than 3000 buildings were completely destroyed, leaving tens of thousands homeless. For the first time, Krupp's plants suffered major damage. 11. In March 1945, Essen underwent the last major attack, which once again overturned the city's rubble. The roads were impassable due to the many bomb holes and the mountains of rubble. gas, water and light supplies collapsed; The Krupp plant was a huge field of rubble. The city center was more than 90 percent destroyed. Although the war was obviously lost, Hitler vehemently rejected capitulation. In Essen, which had been under artillery fire for some time, the deputy leader of the Gaul Fritz Schlsmann left on the 27th of May. In 1945, the enemy announced in a call that the enemy would "be brutally hardened". Before that, however, the eviction of food was necessary. The call was not heard. He did not fight for the propagated final victory, but dived with his lover.
The Ruhr area was enclosed ("Ruhrkettle"), Karnap was on 31 March 2006. It was taken on 23 March, and the end of the war was imminent. On the night of 5. 6. April 1945, US soldiers crossed the Rhine-Herne Canal; later occupied soldiers of the 79. U.S. Infantry Division and the 17th US Airborne Division Katernberg, Altenessen and Dellwig. In the following days they tightened the ring around the city center. 11. In April 1945 the city was officially handed over to the US troops. Becoming and Kettwig followed on 15. April. The commander-in-chief of the West Cessel, General Field Marshal Walter Model, followed the orders of Adolf Hitler until the last moment and shot himself on April 21, 1945.
After the end of the war, the remnants of the largely destroyed Krupp plants, whose main task was the manufacture of arms, were dismantled for repair purposes. In some workshops, peace goods have now been converted. For example, production was focused on trucks and locomotives in the locomotive and wagon construction plant Krupp. However, large areas of the former Krupp cast steel factory remained unused. They have only been made accessible again and reused by the urban development project Krupp-Gürtel as of 2008.
After World War II, reconstruction was the most urgent task for city politicians. Between 1950 and 1961, more than 100,000 new dwellings were built in Essen. The main focus of the housing construction was in Altendorf and Holsterhausen, where large-scale projects could be realized by combining several plots of land. The city center should also be developed to suit the needs of the car. The city center was built in 1940 and was the center of the city of the city. Another aim of the town planning was the construction of administrative buildings, most of which were built as high-rise buildings.
In 1957/1958, the coal crisis also hit Essen. Oil and imported coal put the local coal in trouble and miners had to lay their eggs. The situation on the energy market showed its first results in Essen, the once largest mining town in the continent, a year after the start of the coal crisis. In 1959, the young man in Rellinghausen and the coke plant in Friedrich-Ernestine, belonging to the Victoria Mathias mine, ceased operations. In the same year, the number of employees in the mining industry in Essen decreased to less than 50,000, but the situation worsened enormously in the 1960s in a second coal crisis. Twenty-five mines in the Ruhr area declared their closure, including five in Essen, such as the Amalie mine in Altendorf, the Helene mine in Altenessen, the Queen Elizabeth mine in Frillendorf, the Victoria Mathias mine in the northern district and the Langenbrahm mine mine in Rellinghausen. More than 13,000 workers were employed on these facilities. The crisis therefore led to a reorganization of the German coal industry. On 27 November 1968 Ruhrkohle AG was founded in Essen, Germany, to coordinate the reduction of the workforce and the production capacity. With the decline of mining, the number of people employed in Essen decreased by 12.6% between 1960 and 1970. In the 1970s, the catharina in Frillendorf, the mine Mathias Stinnes in Karnap, the Emil-Fritz mine in Altenessen and the Carl Funke mine in Heisingen were closed. For a little over a decade, the Zeche Zollverein remained the last supporting mine. With the closure of the Zeche Zollverein on December 23, 1986, Essen's tradition as a mining town finally ended.
On July 26, 1956, the 700,000 was launched. inhabitant of Essen born. On June 30, 1963, the Ruhrmetropolis of Essen reached the highest population of 731,994. Afterwards, the population was steadily decreasing. On January 1, 1958, Essen became a bishop's seat. The Ruhrbistum consists of the cities Bochum, Bottrop, Duisburg, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Oberhausen as well as the Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis and the Sauerlandkreis Altena. 1.3 million Catholics counted the diocese in the founding year. The first bishop of the Ruhrbistum was Franz Hengsbach. The Bundesgartenschau 1965 took place in the Gruga. On 5 March 1969, the former mayor of the city of Essen, Gustav Heinemann, was elected President of the Federal Republic of Germany. After 1970, heavy industry declined and the city became more service-oriented as a result of structural change. In September 1970, the Ruhr-Schnellweg tunnel for the traffic link, which was then called "Bundesstraße 1", was completed and inaugurated on 25 September by the then Federal President Gustav Heinemann. The University College of Applied Sciences Essen was founded in 1972 as the general university of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It was consciously created - as well as other new start-ups - as a measure of the structural change of the Ruhr region from coal and steel to the service center. On February 15, 1974, the first university building was handed over to the then-rector Walter Kröll. On 5 October 1967 the first underground train of the Ruhr area was opened with the Essen metro line. The length of the first metro line was 600 meters. With an altitude of 106 meters and 22 floors, the Essen City Hall was opened on November 7th, 1979. One day after the opening of the city hall, the City Center Essen opened with 26,000 square meters of usable space. Pope John Paul II visited Essen on 2 May 1987. The Pope stayed at the Priesthood Seminar Become and retired on May 3 at Essen-Mülheim airport. The largest rally in the history of the city of Essen took place on 1 January 1993. More than 300,000 people followed the call of various organizations to demonstrate against xenophobia in Germany and to set fire to lights of humanity and friendship. In 2006 Essen and the Ruhr area won the European Capital of Culture competition for 2010 (see RUHR.2010 - European Capital of Culture).
On 16 April 2016, an explosive bomb attack was carried out on the prayer house of the Sikh community of Gurdwara Nanaksar in Essen.
urban and population development
The territory of the present city of Essen belonged before 1800 to the Reichsabtei (Reichsgemeingesetz Essen, Stadtrecht since 1244, Altenessen, Borbeck and Steele), to the Reichsabtei Become (Town Become, Stadrecht since 1256 as well as Bredeney, Heisingen and Kettwig), to the Duchy Berg and to the County Mark (Königssteele, horst and free fracture). The various places within the duchy of Berg were divided into the following administrations: Kettwig in front of the bridge (Amt Angermund), Fulerum and Haarzopf (Président Broich) as well as Dilldorf and Voßnacken (Président Hardenberg). The village of Oefte was controversial between the duchy of Mount and the Reichsabbey of Become. (castle-)Altendorf, Horst and Königssteele, which before 1718 was only called Steele and since the turn of the 15th century it has been known as Steele. 16th century. In the 19th century the town was part of the district of Hörde in the Prussian county of Mark. In French time the whole territory came to the Grand Duchy of Mount and in 1815 to Prussia. According to the reports, the towns belonged to the districts of Essen, Mettmann and Düsseldorf in the district of Düsseldorf and to the district of Bochum in the district of Arnsberg. These four circles changed several times in the following decades, until they were either completely dissolved or renamed, and changed significantly in their shape. A district of Essen existed first until 1823, when it was united with the district of Dinslaken to the district of Duisburg, and again from 1859. It now included the cities of Essen, Kettwig, Steele and Become as well as the mayors of Altenessen, Borbeck, Kettwig-Land, Steele-Land and Becland. In 1873 the city of Essen was expelled. The district of Essen has since been called Landkreis Essen.
By the end of the 19th In the 19th century, the city area of Essen only included the old Reichsstadt (Reichsstadt) and the Reichscil (Reichscil). Between 1873 and 1898, its area grew slightly and recently exceeded 10 km². From 1901 onwards, the city underwent a series of enlargements:
- In 1901, the mayor Altendorf was municipalized, which in 1874 had been dissolved by the mayor of Borbeck
- In 1905, the mayor of Rüttenscheid followed, who until 1884 was part of the mayor of Stoppenberg, then the mayor of Rellinghausen and from 1900 was independent.
- In 1908 the Huttrop, which belonged to the Mayor of Stoppenberg since 1874, was added
- In 1910, Rellinghausen was incorporated.
- Also in 1910 Fulerum was dissolved from the mayor of Heißen and attached to Essen. The city area now covered about 39 km².
- In 1915, the mayors were formed
- Borbeck, from which a small part of Frintrops went to Oberhausen,
- Altenessen, whose municipality Karnap has since formed its own mayor,
- Bredeney, until 1902 part of Kettwig-Land, then own mayor of Zweihonnschaft, renamed Bredeney in 1903; Since 1910, the mayor of Bredeney belonged to the municipality of Haarzopf, which belonged to the mayor of Mülheim-Land from 1846 onwards, and from 1878 to the mayor of Heißen in the district of Mülheim an der Ruhr. Food grew to almost 98 km².
- On August 1, 1929, the district of Essen was dissolved. Its municipalities were mainly integrated into the city of Essen. Only the city of Kettwig remained independent and was integrated into the district of Düsseldorf-Mettmann and Rotthausen had been incorporated into Gelsenkirchen in 1923. When the district was dissolved, it was included:
- the city of Steele (with the parts of Bergerhausen and the Königssteele office, incorporated in 1876 and belonging to the mayor's office Steele-Land at the time, which had been formed in 1885 from the places of Eiberg, Freisenbruch and Königssteele belonging to the office of Wattenscheid, and from the place of Horst belonging to the office of Hattingen, and belonging to the district) Hattingen, former district of Bochum)
- The city of Becomes (with the subbredeney incorporated in 1915), which since then the city of Essen has included two former imperial parties with the monastery of Essen and Abbey
- the municipality of Heisingen, which since 1910 has been a mayor
- the municipality of Karnap, which since 1915 has been a mayor
- the municipality of Kray, in which Leithe was incorporated in 1920
- the municipality of copper dreh, which was incorporated in Byfang in 1922
- the municipality of Überruhr, which since 1894 has been a mayor
- the municipalities of Frillendorf, Katernberg, Schonnebeck and Stoppenberg
- the majority of the municipality of Transylvania; only the Minor Honnschaft Klein-circumstance fell to the city of Velbert. The area of Essen was then almost 189 km².
A second phase of urban expansion followed only well after World War II. On January 1, 1970, the southern Altendorf came to Essen under the current name Burgaltendorf (Landkreis Bochum, from 1885 Landkreis Hattingen, from 1929 Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis). On 1 January 1975, the city of Kettwig (Düsseldorf-Mettmann district, with the Kettwig circumstance largely incorporated in 1875, the Kettwig-Land office established in 1857 and incorporated in 1929, Kettwig before the bridge and Kettwig, incorporated in 1930 36 integrated Oefte, which since 1897 belonged to the mayor of Heiligenhaus and formerly to the mayor of Velbert), has been dissolved against the massive protest of the Kettwiger citizenry and has been consigned to Essen. The city area thus grew to over 210 km².
In the spring of 1976, both the Council of the City of Essen and the Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia rejected a communion of the city of Bottrop with the district of Grafenwald after Essen, which had already been decided by the regional cabinet in Duesseldorf. Had it been a municipality, the population of food would have grown to around 790,000 inhabitants.
In 1896, the city's population exceeded the 100,000 mark; Food became a big city. In 1962, the city was converted into the present urban area of 749,193 inhabitants (Kettwig and Burgaltendorf were only later settled - in the then urban area it was 729,301), which was the highest population ever. 31. According to the data processing and statistics office of the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, the official population of Essen was 585,430 (only main residences). This represented a decline of about 20% since 1962. The trend continued to decline until 2012, as the surplus of deaths reached a size of around 2,500-3,000 people each year. Since 2012, the city of Essen has again experienced an increase in its population. As reference date 31. On December 31, 2014, the city of Essen registered an increase of 1708 inhabitants to 573,115 inhabitants, and on December 31, 2014 the city of Essen had a population of 576,691. In 2015, the Land-based Information and Technology company of North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW) projected an increase in the population of Essen by 3.6 % to 590,200 persons by the year 2040. The city had a population of 591,018 as of 31 December 2019, while the National Statistical Office had a population of 582,760 at the same time.
The division of the image of the city reflects the social structure. The northern districts, which are densely built, are characterized by a relatively young population with relatively low incomes and a relatively high proportion of foreigners. The districts south of the city center are more prosperous, people are older and the foreign population is lower. Such a south-north slope can be found in many other towns in the Ruhr area (depending on the position of the Emscherzone). However, for many years, a counter-trend towards an internal-external gradient has been evident in Essen. Northern districts are valued by large-scale housing projects (e.g. Bohemia in Altenessen-Nord) and the inner city or inner city districts are developing into areas with particular need for renovation due to their old, largely unrenovated building stock.
The unemployment rate in Essen as of November 30, 2019 was 9.8%.
|Unemployment rate in Essen (percentage as at 31 December)||12.9||13.1||33.6||13.3||13.3||13.1||12.7||10.1|
|Unemployment rate in North Rhine-Westphalia (as per 31 December)||9||8.4||8.8||9||8.7||8.4||8.1|
According to data from the Social Atlas of the city of Essen, the density of unemployment is highest in the districts of Altendorf (17.7%), the city center, the northern district and the southern Altenessen district.
|Density of unemployment by districts of Essen (as % as at 31 December 2013)|
|24||north of Altenessen||11.9|
|Source: City of Essen: Social atlas, as at 31 December 2013. More information: As a percentage of the population at the place of the main apartment aged 18 to 64. Unemployed persons who are not or are only short-term employees in the Federal Republic of Germany until the age of 65 years are required to seek a compulsory employment which is at least 15 hours per week and who can and may pursue the desired employment and are immediately available for work as workers. You must have personally registered with your competent work agency. Participants in active labor market policies are not considered to be unemployed. City of Essen: including persons not attributable in geographical areas Data from the Federal Agency for Labor, Nuremberg.|
The name of the city changed continuously over the centuries. While the city in the first mentions still Astnide (oldest form: Astnithi), he changed over Astnidum, Astanidum, Asbidi, Assinde, Assinde, Assindia, Assindia, Essendia, Essende, Dining, Eating to today's food. It is assumed that the name originally referred to an Eschengebiet or an area in the East. The link to the German term "Esse", which is a pun from the 19th century, is wrong. It is a combination of the name and the appearance of the time. In the late 14th century, a notoriously unknown invocation of the Essen Foundation ensured that the citizens of Essen were not called "eaters" (as the citizens of Bremen "Bremer"), but "Essener", because he did not want to be called "city-known eaters" (Latin manducator in urbe illustris).
The administration of the city of Essen was initially the responsibility of the monastery or its subordinate civil servants. Since 1335, two mayors from the middle of the council have been mentioned at the head of the city, one of whom is also the pensioner. From the 14th century onwards, the Council became increasingly important. At that time, food could even gain the freedom of the empire. She had to give up later. The Council was elected annually. In 1602, the council was elected indirectly by eleven members of the guild and office on the basis of a new curriculum. The 14 members of the Council included two mayors and a pensioner. In 1804, the Prussian state replaced the council with a magistrate. In 1807, the Grand-Ducal-Bergische MunizipalConstitution was introduced. After the town planning was introduced in 1856, there was a mayor and a council. The mayor later received the title of Mayor.
During the Nazi period, the mayor was appointed by the NSDAP. After World War II, the military government of the British occupation zone established a new mayor, and in 1946 it introduced the local constitution along the British model. After that, there was a popular-elected "council of the city," whose members are called "city councilors." The Council initially elected from among its members the Mayor as the town's chairman and representative, who was volunteer. The Council also elected a full-time Chief Executive from 1946 as Head of the City Council. In 1999, the dual head of the city administration was abandoned. Since then, there has been only the full mayor. He is Chairman of the Council, Head of the City Council and representative of the City. He was first directly elected by the people in 1999.
Mayor has been in office since 21. October 2015 Thomas Kufen from the CDU, who was elected on 27 September 2015 and re-elected on 13 September 2020. His predecessor is Reinhard Pass of the SPD.
In the election of the Mayor on September 13, 2020, the incumbent Thomas Kufen (CDU) won 54.27 % against his competitors with a turnout of 48.06 %.
After the municipal elections on September 13, 2020, the city council has the following distribution of seats (status: 22 October 2020).
|election proposals||% |
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||34.45||30||31.5||28|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party||24.26||21||34.0||31|
|GREEN||Alliance 90/The Greens||18.62||16||11.2||10|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||7.46||6||3.8||3|
|THE LEFT.||THE LEFT.||3.91||3||5.3||5|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||3.05||3||3.3||3|
Since January 2013, the city of Essen has been broadcasting the public part of its Council meetings via live stream on the Internet.
At the end of 2012, the total debt of the city of Essen was 4.41 billion euros. This amounts to EUR 7802 per inhabitant. Essen is ranked 13th in the debt ranking of the 103 circular cities in Germany.
Since 13 January 2014, the city of Essen’s debt watch has been showing debt reduction for the first time in about 30 years. The city repaid €0.71 per second on this basis on outstanding loans. The city also planned to allocate a total of EUR 22.4 million to the city’s debt relief in 2014. More than €18.8 million should be repaid for investment loans. A further €3.6 million was to be used to repay liquidity loans. In addition, by 2020, the debts of EUR 500 million were to be reduced, according to the plans of the city comrade of Essen. At present, however, the budgetary deviation for 2015 alone is more than EUR 52 million negative, and the achievement of the announced targets is questionable. In addition, in January 2015, the city’s liabilities in euros increased significantly as a result of the decoupling of the euro from the Swiss franc, as the city absorbed part of its liabilities not in euros but in Swiss francs. After an initial shortfall of €3.4 million was expected for 2016, the budgetary situation deteriorated further in 2016, and the volume of short-term financing envisaged by the City of Essen exceeded the sum of cash loans granted by all municipalities in Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and the five new Länder combined.
As of 6 April 2019, the city of Essen had a total debt of approximately EUR 3.26 billion, which corresponds to a per capita debt of EUR 5 520.
Flag with coat of arms on striped yellow-blue cloth
flag without a coat of arms
banner with coat of arms on long striped yellow-blue cloth
Banner without a coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city of Essen is a special heraldic feature because it consists of two shields and a crown. It is called an alliance or a grouped coat of arms, since its shields are usually grouped together in a split shield; but not at the coat of arms of the city of Essen. It shows two individual shields under the princely crown. Such a double - sign coat of arms only shows the coat of arms of the city of Brandenburg on the Havel in Germany.
Blowing: Alligan arms with two signs in Courtoisie (heraldic right (front) sign inverted towards the left)
‘Front plate: In gold, a red double eagle with a red triple-leaf crown above both chiefs, shaded in black, with a sign: In blue, there's a left slanted golden sword. Above both shields, a black gold triple leaf crown with a red inner face, with three green and two red stones in the front between two silver pearl rows ("Essen princess crown").’
meaning of the coat of arms: The black double eagle on the gold bottom in the front sign is the German double eagle, but without the skepter and the Reichsappfel; it symbolizes the imperial reach of the city. The golden sword displayed in the back stands for the Town Saints Cosmas and Damian, who are said to have been executed with this ceremonial sword. The crown of princes, where a wall crown should be used in a city coat of arms, is quite unheraldic, like the whole structure, and refers to the Princely abbey of Essen.
The coat of arms in its current form was designed by the Berlin painter Emil Doepler in 1887 and enforced by the city against some resistance from heraldists. A version with a more heralically correct structure welcomes visitors who leave the train station towards the city, on the roof of the opposite hotel Handelsshof. The coat of arms uses only a split shield and the wall instead of the princely crown.
blasphemy of the folded (split) coat:
- "Split of gold and blue, half a red-edged and red-edged black (double) eagle at the front of the gap, a left-wing golden sword at the back. A four-tin golden wall crown above the sign.’
The coat of arms was taken from the current city colors yellow and blue.
Essen maintains a town twinning with the following cities:
- Sunderland, United Kingdom, since 1949
- Tampere, Finland, since 1960
- Grenoble, France, since 1974
- Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, since 1991
- Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel, since 1991
- Zabrze, Poland, since 2015
- Changzhou, People's Republic of China, since 2015
Economy and infrastructure
In the past, food's economic development was accompanied by changes in the inner fabric. The combination of numerous economic and non-economic factors has shifted the orders of magnitude of the individual sectors - primary (landscape and mining), secondary (industry and manufacturing) and tertiary (services). The relations between these industries changed, as did the relations with the Essen region. Accompanied by economic and structural improvement measures by the city, the state and the federal government, the company is still undergoing redeployments in its domestic economic fabric.
The area of Essen enjoys a supra-regional importance through the mining industry. Coal and steel once determined the picture, but it was not restored after World War II. The dismantling and construction of new industries ultimately led to the loss of steel production and coal production in Essen. With the unfolding inter-regional and international interdependence, the Essen region began to transform its economic character more and more. While the raw materials industry shrank, the processing industry grew.
The "Krupp and Coal City" no longer exists. Essen is mainly an administrative city with a still high but no longer classic industrial potential. The decline in traditional industries offered the region's economy a unique opportunity, which has also been seized. The high flexibility and efficiency of the companies made it possible to successfully transform the structure. Today, industrial structure and production programs are widely dispersed. The companies of Essen are present in many markets around the world.
The most striking growth process was in the area of services. Significant impetus was given first by trade, then by the state and the other service providers. If trade was initially focused on the needs of the Ruhr region, it is now of national and international importance. Development in the tertiary sector has mitigated many of the friction caused by structural changes in production, although it has not fully absorbed the high job losses in the coal industry.
Today the city of Essen is one of the decision-making centers of the German economy. Eight of the country's top 100 companies are based here with its headquarters. Essen is a media, commercial and service center as well as a high-tech metropolis in the fields of energy and medicine.
Essen is one of the three cities with the strongest economic growth in Germany. According to official statistics, the performance of the economy increased significantly between 2004 and 2014. Between 2004 and 2014, GDP grew by 31.9% to €25.5 billion, or €78,370 per worker. Gross value added also shows strong growth. In 2016, food, within city limits, produced a gross domestic product (GDP) of €24.196 billion, ranking 11 in Germany's cities by economic performance. GDP per capita was €41,512 in the same year (North Rhine-Westphalia: €37,416, Germany €38,180). In 2016, the city employed around 330,000 people. However, the unemployment rate was 10.1% in December 2018, well above the average of 6.4% in North Rhine-Westphalia.
With the energy companies RWE AG and E.ON SE, two DAX-30 companies have their headquarters in Essen. The companies Brenntag AG, Evonik Industries AG, thyssenkrupp AG and Hochtief AG are listed in the MDAX. In 2019, these seven DAX companies reached an exchange value of around EUR 91.7 billion. The city of Essen thus ranks fourth behind Munich, Walldorf and Bonn in the "Börsenliga" of German cities in 2019.
Other large companies based in Essen include Steag, Aldi-Nord, BackWerk, Pitstop, Galeria Karstadt Kaufhof, Deichmann, Open Grid Europe, Medion, ifm electronic, Trimet Aluminum, Schenker AG, Ferrostaal, a subsidiary of Siemens AG, Siemens Industry Software GmbH & Co. KG, Funke Media Group (until 2012 WAZ Media Group) and the NOWEDA. A large medium-sized company is Spicer Articulated Wellenbau GmbH.
The resident credit institutions include the National Bank, the Sparkasse Essen, the Bank in the diocese of Essen, the Geno Bank Essen, and Von Essen Bank. In the Moltkeviertel there is the branch of the German Bundesbank Essen. The subsidiary PCC Services GmbH of Deutsche Bank is located in the southern district of Bismarckplatz with about 1000 employees.
Gagfah, Allbau, Vivawest, Immeo Wohnen, RAG Montan Immobilien, ThyssenKrupp Real Estate, Kölbl Kruse, Instone Real Estate and Hochtief Property Management are all real estate companies.
The municipal administration employs about 5200 people and the nearby companies employ about 2000 people. (status: 2007)
The Essen trade fair is also an important factor in economic life, apart from several smaller special fairs (IPM, game), the trade fairs focused on the utility industry such as the E-world energy & water, and the sanitary heating climate have established themselves here. Likewise, "the World Fair of equestrian sports", Equitana, Security and Deubaukom have attracted numerous visitors for years. Also worth mentioning is the Techno Classica as the world’s largest classic car fair with around 150,000 visitors and the Essen Motor Show.
In 1927, after the Limbeck road was closed to cars and became the first pedestrian zone in Germany, Kettwiger Strasse became the main shopping street after World War II. On June 16, 1965, a first car-free piece was expanded several times. Essen became the shopping city of the Ruhr area. The shops for mass consumption are therefore located on the Limbecker and Kettwiger streets. Since 2009, the Limbecker Platz shopping center with about 200 shops has been located on the north-west edge of the city center, and the Galerie Essen City Hall (1979 to 2010 called the City Center Essen), which has been operating since 1979, has about 80 shops on the eastern side of the city.
The retail and specialist shops are also located in a decentralized location. Almost every part of the city has its own area with department stores and retailers. In addition, the shops are located along the main roads.
In Essen, the Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR.) has a studio on the third. 43. With the regional news in WDR. 2 and the TV programs local time Ruhr and local time compact the WDR. studio serves the city and region. From 1974 to 1980 ARD broadcasted the crime scene consequences of WDR. with the Essen commissioner Haferkamp. RTL is also present at the RTL-West-Studio Essen. For the various TV formats such as RTL aktuell, Item 12 or Good Evening RTL the Essen editorial covers the entire Ruhr area. The TV learner nwision bundles TV programs about food and TV makers from food in its media library. In the city center of Essen there is a news agency of the German Press Agency (dpa).
The local radio station 102.2 Radio Essen will be broadcast in Essen, whose studio is located in the city center on the Lindenallee. In the evening, radio programs from the Essen radio stations are broadcast on the frequency of Radio Essen, such as Radio ECO, which informs about the most important economic events of the week, the Neue Essener Welle reports on local topics and radio-pink noise is the magazine for gays and lesbians. The university radio CampusFM also broadcasts a 24-hour program, which is primarily aimed at the students of the University of Duisburg-Essen. It consists of magazines and special programs, editorial articles, music and program acquisitions from Deutschlandfunk.
Essen is an important location for the press and publishing industry. In particular, the Funke Media Group (formerly WAZ Media Group), founded in Essen and based here, shapes the local press landscape. It is one of the leading publishing companies in Germany and has also become a major media company throughout Europe. The Group publishes 27 daily newspapers, 13 weekly newspapers, 175 public and specialist magazines, 99 advertising journals and 400 customer magazines in Germany and abroad, making it the third largest publishing house in Germany and one of the largest regional newspaper publishers in Europe. In addition, the company has its own stand in the printing, broadcasting and internet business. WAZ Media Group does not publish any business figures, but is considered one of the most profitable media companies in Germany.
The Ruhr School of Journalists (JSR) is based in Essen. It is a non-profit training institution of the WAZ Media Group and the newspaper group Thuringia (ZGT). The Ruhr School of Journalists was founded in 1993 in Essen. It trains around 90 volunteers for regional newspapers and the West German magazine publishing house.
The daily newspapers are published in Essen by the Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (WAZ) and the Neue Ruhr Zeitung (NRZ). Both are transferred by the Funke Media Group.
The Ruhr word of the bistum Essen was closed at the end of 2013. For a fee, the Werdener Nachrichten and the Borbecker News, which publish local news are published weekly. The Borbecker News was once the largest local weekly newspaper in Germany; the Borbecker News and Werdener Nachrichten have been part of the Funke Media Group since 2000, in which the aforementioned daily newspapers WAZ and NRZ are published. On the other hand, they may be delivered free of charge. a. twice a week, the city mirror sheets.
The tabloid Bild has a local editorial office in Essen (Dietrich-Oppenberg-Platz 1). Axel Springer AG has a printing house in Im Teelbruch 100, a Kettingen industrial area. It employs about 400 people and produces about one million daily newspapers and weekly newspapers.
In addition, with the A. Sutter GmbH - Sutter Telefonbuchverlag GmbH is one of the largest publishers of telephone and sector telephone books in Germany - and the publishing house Beleke is based in Essen, Germany. A total of about 200 publishing companies are based in Essen. The large number of medium-sized and smaller enterprises in the Essen publishing landscape produce both numerous cross-regional and many regional print products.
In 1927 the Folkwang School of Music was founded as an interdisciplinary educational institution for art. In 1929, the School of Design was continued under the name of Folkwang. In 1963, the institution obtained the status of a university in the country. In 1972, the subject was integrated into the newly founded University College of Applied Sciences Essen and in 2007 was transferred back to the Folkwang Music Academy. With the addition of field offices in Bochum, Dortmund and Duisburg, the newly integrated art school has given itself the name Folkwang University.
In 1972, the University College of Applied Sciences was founded in Essen, in which the School of Pedagogy, several engineering schools, the Higher School of Social Work and Economics and the Center of Applied Sciences were integrated. In 2003, it merged with the University of Duisburg to become the current University of Duisburg-Essen, one of the ten largest universities in Germany.
In 1994 the private FOM (University of Economics & Management) started its studies. It was established as a university for professionals by institutions of the economy. In 2010, FOM had become the largest private university in Germany with more than 16,000 students.
In 2013, the private School of Fine Arts was founded in Essen.
Since 1986, the KSG|GfS simulator center in the Copper Dreh district of Essen has been the world's largest facility for the training of nuclear personnel. In addition to the training of license personnel for the German nuclear power stations, the simulator center in Essen also provides training and further training for the personnel of the Borssele NPP, which is the only commercial power station in the Netherlands.
There are currently 12 European schools in Essen. These include a primary school and a primary school, two secondary schools, three full-time schools and four secondary schools and a vocational college.
The International School Ruhr (IS Ruhr), located in the Moltkeviertel of Essen, is an educational project of the Ruhr district. It opened in Essen in 2010. The Ruhr initiative had previously laid the necessary structural foundations for this. ISIS Ruhr, a recognized secondary school, is conceived as a private full-day school that promotes multilingualism and offers individual learning and support for children from the third year of life (pre-school) and leads to the international high school.
The Catholic School of Care Professional Food is a vocational training.
The Haus der Technik holds more than 1500 seminars, courses, conferences and congresses every year, mainly in the field of further education. The Volkshochschule Essen (Volkshochschule) has roots in 1919.
The Rheinisch-Westphalian Professional College of Essen (RWB Essen) in the Frohnhausen district is the largest support school for the deaf and hard of hearing in Germany. As a secondary school, it offers courses up to university level and general maturity.
Music, dance and play are taught at the Folkwang Music School.
The medicoreha Welsink Academy offers more than 140 training places with its state-recognized specialist school for physiotherapy and the dual Bachelor's degree "Applied Therapy Sciences" at the Academy at the MediClin specialty hospital Rhein/Ruhr in Essen-Kettwig.
The secondary schools include:
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In addition to the University Hospital, the city also has 12 hospitals with a total of almost 6000 beds. These include the Alfried Krupp Hospital Rüttenscheid and the Alfried Krupp Hospital Steele (formerly Luther Hospital), the Elisabeth Hospital in Huttrop with the Geriatrie Center Haus Berge in Bochold, the Essen-Mitte Hospitals (Huyssens Foundation and Knappschaft Hospital), the Catholic Hospital of Essen (Philippines) St. Vincenz Hospital in Stoppenberg and Marienhospital in Altenessen), the clinics Essen-Süd (St. Josef Hospital and Ev. Hospital in Become), the Kamillushaus addiction clinic in Heidhausen and the St. Josef Hospital in Copper Dreh, which is connected with the St. Elisabeth Hospital in neighboring Hattingen is the Kath. The university hospital and the Elisabeth hospital have a pediatric hospital. In addition, Essen has about 1000 established doctors, about 350 dentists and about 65 out-patient care services.
See also: List of hospitals in Essen
Essen performs many functions in a central town in the Ruhr region, where more than five million people live. This significance is documented by numerous institutions and associations that perform functions nationwide or set a mark for the region.
Since its foundation in 1920, the regional association Ruhr (RVR) has its headquarters in Essen. This oldest German regional association, comprising four large municipalities and four districts, fulfills cross-border community tasks. They range from the maintenance and development of the countryside to organizational services for local administrations to the improvement of possibilities for leisure activities.
The city is a supra-regional jurisdiction with the Regional Social Court of North Rhine-Westphalia, the Landgericht Essen, the Arbeitsgericht Essen and the three local courts Essen, Essen-Borbeck and Essen-Steele.
In addition to the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Essen, which is also responsible for the towns of Mülheim an der Ruhr and Oberhausen, the three water management associations based in Essen, the Ruhr Association, the Emschergenossenschaft and the Ruhrtalban Association perform their central functions in the economic sector.
Essen has been the seat of the bistum of Essen since 1958. The diocese covers large parts of the Ruhr area and smaller parts of the Sauerland region. The Latin American Relief and Works Agency of the Catholic Church in Germany, the Bishop's Action Adveniat, is also based in Essen.
The weather for North Rhine-Westphalia is forecast by the German weather service in Essen.
The customs investigation office in the southern district of Essen is one of eight customs investigation offices in Germany. It shall be responsible for identifying the criminal and administrative offenses assigned to the customs administration for prosecution.
Essen is also the seat of the following bodies or public bodies:
- Rheinisch-Westphalia Institute for Economic Research
- Federal Association of the BKK
- Foundation for German Science
- Essen Association of Immigrant Associations
The following diplomatic missions and consular posts are located in Essen:
- Consulate General of the Republic of Turkey
- Honorary consulates from Albania, Honduras, Cameroon, Lithuania, Philippines, Norway, Thailand, Hungary and Uruguay.
Since January 2019, the Haus der Technik has had a Europe Direct Information Center.
Düsseldorf airport is 30 km south of the city center and can be reached via the A 52 motorway; public transport is provided mainly by the S1 and the regional express lines RE1, RE2, RE6, RE11, which connect the airport to the city center in 22 to 37 minutes, depending on the train chosen. Dortmund airport is about 25 mi away.
At the city border with Mülheim an der Ruhr there is the municipal transport landing place Essen/Mülheim. The landing stage has a terminal building but does not operate scheduled or charter airlines. Private small aircraft form the majority of the seats in Essen/Mülheim, as jet planes in Essen/Mülheim can only take off and land with special permission. There is also a sailplane club and a general air assembly hall of the WDL airship company. The operator of Essen/Mülheim airport is FEM GmbH. Air Albatros offers occasional sightseeing flights over the city with an old Antonov. The airport can be reached by public transport - tram line 104 can be used from Mülheim to the main cemetery, from where you can take bus line 130 to the airport. From the main railway station in Essen you can reach the airport by underground line U18 and bus line 145 by changing to bus line 130 at the RheinRuhrZentrum.
Essen boasts an ICE railway station and a regional railway station, which was renovated in 2010. There are direct connections to major German and European cities, such as Berlin, Munich, Hamburg and Paris. There are also the regional train stations Altenessen, Borbeck, Kray Süd and Steele and 21 S-Bahn stations: Bergeborbeck, Borbeck South, Dellwig, Dellwig Ost, Eiberg, Frohnhausen, Gerschede, Holthausen, Horst, Hügel, Kettwig, Kettwig Stausee, Kray Nord, Copper Dreh, Stadtwald, Steele Ost, South, Überruhr, Become, West and Zollverein Nord. In the rail freight sector, Essen is no longer a railway hub after the closure of the marshaling yard east of the main railway station.
local public transport
Local public transport (public transport) is mainly served by the Ruhrbahn (Ruhrbahn), which currently (September 2017) has 84 bus lines, 21 Night Express, 11 tram lines (total length 119 km) and three metro and city trams (total length 35 km). The city railway started operating in 1977. All connections can be used at uniform rates within the Rhine-Ruhr transport network. The tram-culture line 107 goes to Gelsenkirchen Hbf and offers information about the sights of the individual stations. A journey from the southern section to Bredeney requires a change in Essen Hbf.
Essen is located in the catchment area of the federal motorways A 40 (Ruhr-Schnellweg), A 42 (Emscher-Schnellweg), A 44 and A 52 and the federal roads B 224, B 227 and B 231. The A 2 motorway has the Essen/Gladbeck junction, which is however approximately two kilometers north of the city border with Essen; and is connected to the city via the highway 224. The shortest road in Essen, with a length of 15 meters, is called the hall and is located in Become, the longest road is the quickway with a length of 11.7 kilometers. Stotztnock, also in Become, is the steepest street in the city with a 30% gradient. 22. The first traffic light of the city of Essen was opened on August 1928 at the junction Altendorfer Strasse/Helenenstraße. Today there are about 630 traffic light systems.
With effect from 1 January 2012, a coherent environmental zone has been established in the Ruhr area. This environmental zone extends from Duisburg to Dortmund and covers an area of approximately 850 square kilometers. Motorways in the Ruhr region are exempt from the environmental zone provisions.
According to statistics from the registration agency, a total of 348,313 cars were registered in Essen in February 2019. 2,438 electric and hybrid vehicles (562 of which were powered by a pure electric motor) were among the vehicles registered. There are 18,492 motorcycles in addition.
Bus services to German and European destinations are provided via the Central Bus Station Essen at the main station.
In 1991, the city of Essen was awarded the (anti-)award of Rostic cuisine at the ADFC bike climbing test as the most unbike-friendly city. Since 1995, Essen has been a member of the working group for bicycle-friendly towns, districts and municipalities in NRW e. V. Today, Essen advertises itself with about 200 km of cycle paths, bicycle roads and former tracks of the Zechenbahnen within the city. Special bike signposts are available on the main network for the correct orientation. The map of Essen's bicycle city indicates routes and cycle paths, as well as the sights of the city. There are well over 3000 bicycle stands at important destinations throughout the city.
Metropolrad Ruhr launched the largest bicycle rental system in Germany in Essen in June 2010. By 2012, 3000 rental bikes will be available in a further nine cities in the Ruhr area. The project links ten cities from the Ruhr region, including Dortmund, Bochum, Essen and Oberhausen. New is the possibility of using bicycles throughout the city. In the 2012 bike climbing test, Essen also slipped through this offer in ranking from 23/28 to 22/38 of the participating cities in North Rhine-Westphalia. The average school note 3.97 and the modal split's low share of cycling of 5% (2011) (for comparison: 3% in 2001) demonstrates the continuing considerable need for improvement in the range of cycling services.
The cycling trail Ruhr also passes through Essen.
The pipe shall be navigable to Essen-Rellinghausen for craft with a maximum draft of 1,70 m, a length of not more than 38 m and a width of not more than 5,20 m. On the Ruhr and the Ruhrstauses, passenger ships operate for recreation.
The city harbor of Essen was the youngest port on the Rhine-Herne Canal in 1934 and has been operated by the Stadtwerke Essen since 1987. The port consists of a runway basin and a parallel port along the canal, which together cover 63,000 m² of water. The most important goods handled are solid and mineral fuels, mineral oil and chemical products, stones and earths as well as iron and steel.
The abstraction of drinking water can be traced back to the 16th century in Essen. Until well into the 19th century, drinking water was extracted from springs and wells to supply the city's citizens. But the huge increase in population during the industrialization era made a new form of drinking water extraction necessary. In 1863, the Municipal Council of Essen decided to build a pumping station in the Ruhr Valley to extract the water from the banks of the Ruhr river. This method has proved its worth to the present day, but over the years the demands for availability and the quality of drinking water have increased. In 1984 a modern and technically sophisticated water treatment plant was therefore put into operation. This and another plant in Essen-Horst are operated by Wasseraberreich Essen GmbH.
Stadtwerke Essen AG operates eight water tank systems to cover the security of the water supply and the peak consumption. These are both water towers and high and earth reservoirs. Together they have a capacity of about 52,000 m³. The annual water charge is an average of 35 million m³.
The city has numerous administrative buildings from all over the last century, from the building of the Emschergenossenschaft (Wilhelm Kreis) to the RWE tower (designed by the Düsseldorf architect Christoph Ingenhoven). Overdiek and partner). Many buildings from the first third of the 20th century determine the image of the inner city (Bahnhofsvorplatz with Haus der Technik (former Stock Exchange), Hotel Handel Hof, Eickhaus, Old Sparkasse and Hauptpost as well as in the inner city area of Deutschlandhaus, Steinhaus, Derendorfhaus, Lichtburg, Baedekerhaus, Blumhaus). These buildings were designed by well-known architects, most of whom were from southern Germany (in the vicinity of the Essen School of Arts and Crafts or the Essen Group of Space Art).
In the city center is the castle square with St. John's Church, Atrium, Münster, Cathedral Treasury, Bishop's Palace, Volkshochschule and the view of the Old Synagogue and the Old Catholic Peace Church.
After the war, many old residential and commercial houses were renovated in a higher construction by an architecture of the 1950s and 1960s on the ground plan of the medieval city.
Essen has been a town-planning center, especially in the south of the city. Numerous planned districts have been created (Moltkeviertel, Margarethenhöhe, Altenhof I and II, large parts of Frohnhausen and others. (a). In addition, the city was equipped with a second inner city ring with partly representative architecture (e.g. the Erlöserkirche, the Lucky House, the Steag headquarters, the parish church St. Engelbert, the building of the Emschergenossenschaft, the headquarters of the KVR, the Ruhrhaus and the Resurrection Church on the Friedrich-, Hohenzollern-, Kronprinzen-, Kurfürstenstraße-).
What is more striking is the height of the buildings, which is only three floors in many places, and the layout of large green courtyards. This is due to the work of Robert Schmidt (1869-1934), a member of the City of Essen. This was a construction equivalent to the Berlin leasehold architecture in the Ruhr area.
In 1908, Robert Schmidt set up a residential district near the city center, following the reform idea of the garden town. Large green, sports and playgrounds combine with high-quality building materials - consistently in the style of the reform architecture - to be a unique example of modern urban development influenced by the reform movement worldwide.
The town is characterized by a lot of trees and woods and in the south by a hilly landscape (Ruhrberge/Baldeneysee).
Outstanding buildings are the Opera House, built according to plans of the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto, as well as the new head office of the RWE group, a cylindrical tower with a double-walled glass facade with a climate-effective double-walled facade of the architects Ingenhoven, Overdiek and Partner (Düsseldorf), which set here a widely visible landmark for the city.
In the north-east of the city is the site of the former coke and Zeche Zollverein, a World Heritage site, which is considered a milestone in industrial architecture. The "Zollverein-Areal" is an anchor of the European Industrial Culture Route (ERIH). The mining history of Essen ended with the closure of the Zollverein coke plant in 1993.
For the Customs Association area, there are concrete plans to develop the world cultural heritage into a regional cultural center, which are controversial due to the necessary interventions in the historical building material. Already there are the Red Dot Design Museum, the customs association, which is under construction, as well as various smaller exhibitions and projects. The new Ruhr Museum was opened in early 2010. Built in 2006, the Zollverein-Kubus has also been used since the beginning of 2010 by the Design Department of Folkwang University.
In the center of the city you will find the Johanniskirche, the Münster (which goes back in parts to the 10th century and is considered the symbol of the city), the massive Baedeker House, completed in 1928, and the Lichtburg, built in 1928 and renovated in 2003. There is also a prominent glass entrance to the new building of the VHS. In the Münster there is the Golden Madonna, the oldest preserved full-plastic Madonna figure in the Christian West. The so-called Haus der Technik is located opposite the main railway station, built in the early 1920s as an office and business house according to the architect Edmund Körner.
Also worth a visit is the Old Synagogue, which was called New Synagogue when it opened in 1913: After the burnt-out of the Reichspogromnacht, it was no longer used by the Jewish community (which built a new, smaller synagogue after World War II). After changing uses as a design museum, among other things, it now serves as a meeting place between religions and cultures. In 1980 the synagogue became a memorial.
To the south of the city lies the Folkwang Museum, which presents an important collection of romantic and modern art, and the Grugapark, named after the Grand Ruhrland Garden Exhibition (PGI), which took place here in 1929. The park has an area of 70 hectares and is a popular recreation area for eaters. These include the Grugahalle, where concerts and major events such as the 1994 EU summit take place, as well as the Essen exhibition.
Even further south is the artificial Lake Baldeneysee, which was built between 1931 and 1933 as part of a job creation scheme, the Villa Hügel, the monumental residence of the Krupp family, built by the industrial Alfred Krupp, where a permanent exhibition of the Krupp Foundation and various temporary exhibitions can be found.
The Margarethenhöhe district, named after the Margarethenhöhe settlement built in 1929 by Georg Metzendorf on behalf of Margarethe Krupp (who also named it), is an architecturally important example of the garden city movement.
The two southern districts of Kettwig and Die, located at the Ruhr, contrast strongly with the rest of the city. They both own an old town center, which was almost completely spared from the Second World War and subsequent demolition works. In the district of Kettwig there is also the reservoir of the Ruhr Lake, where the ships from Mülheim and Essen arrive. The Krayer Town Hall is also worth a visit, where the first council meeting took place after the Second World War, as the old Essen Town Hall was badly damaged during the war. Another striking building in Essen is the 157.5 meter high telecommunications tower, which is not accessible to the public.
According to the Federal Statistical Office, Essen is the greenest city in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third greenest city in Germany due to its large share of recreational areas. Eating was on the 18th. 2015, 2017 June 2015.
There are 12 designated nature reserves in Essen, 58 protected areas and numerous natural monuments.
Green and parks
At the time of industrialization, the company Krupp had its numerous works in the city area equipped with parks, which are mostly still available today, to help the workers recover. In addition, in recent decades, the city of Essen has made an effort to improve the quality of life and living, thereby changing the former industrial image of the city. Essen became the greenest city in North Rhine-Westphalia and the third greenest city in Germany. Essen has more than 700 green areas, about 400 playgrounds and several parks, some of them larger, in the neighborhoods.
With 70 hectares, the Grugapark is the largest park of food. As a former venue of the Reichsgartenschau in 1938 and the Bundesgartenschau in 1965, he is today considered both a gaming and sports center and a resting oasis in the city. In summer, the park hosts various events, including concerts, park festivals and children's parties. There are about 40 sculptures on display here.
The hills park is the park in the Bredeney district, now publicly accessible, belonging to the Villa Hill, which the industrialist Alfred Krupp planned and built from 1869. In the southern district, Essen is the oldest publicly accessible green area, the Stadtgarten Essen. It is the largest green area in the inner city with 6.87 hectares today. In 2009, a part of the Krupp Park in the western quarter was opened as part of the Krupp-Gürtel urban development project.
The Borbeck Castle Park is considered one of the oldest parks in the Rhine region. It is designed as an English landscape garden and dates back to the time when Maria Kunigunde of Saxony presided over the Essen pen as an Äbtissin. The source of the Borbecke can still be reached today via winding paths, which feeds rivers and pond through a narrow stream. In the eastern part of the park is the Dubois Arena, a former boxing arena that is now the venue for events.
Other examples of the city’s major parks include the Kaiser Wilhelm Park in Altenessen, the Ludwig Kessing Park in Überruhr-Hinsel, the Stadtgarten Steele, the Kray Volksgarten in the east of the city, the Gervinuspark in Frohnhausen and the Brehminsel in the Ruhr River in Become.
The sights and shopping in the city, the central location in the Rhine-Ruhr region, as well as its trade fairs and congresses attract numerous tourists and business travelers. 39 hotels with a total of 4,832 beds count the Landesbetriebe Information und Technik Nordrhein-Westfalen (IT.NRW) in 2017. In addition, there are two 44-bed guesthouses, 36 hotel garni with 2,974 beds, five relaxation, holiday or training homes with 688 beds, seven youth hostels or cabins with 431 beds, two preventive and rehabilitation clinics with 520 beds, and five campsites. With five stars, Kettingen Castle Hugenpoet is the most luxurious hotel in the city. With a utilization rate of around 42.6%, the Essen location is an attractive market for hotel operators, and more hotels are currently being built and planned throughout the city. This brings the number of hotels to 96, making the city of Essen by far the largest hotel location in the Ruhr area.
Philharmonic, opera and theater
In the Theater and Philharmonic Essen (TuP) - organized under a single roof - Essen has a philharmonic orchestra with the hall (as a venue for shows), an opera house (Aalto theater) and a city theater (Grillo theater) with a few smaller stages connected to it. The venues of the TUP are among the architectural icons of the region. More than 400,000 guests attend the TuP's more than 1,000 events per season.
The theater in the town hall is located on the ground floor of the town hall. In the game plan, the genres range from boulevard comedy, to crime, operetta and musicals to classical acting.
Stratmanns Theater is located in the Europahaus at Kennedyplatz. Since July 1995 Ludger Stratmann has been performing on his own stage with various cabaret programs under the motto Doctor Stratmann - Heitere Medical Cabaret.
The oldest private theater in North Rhine-Westphalia (The Little Theater of Essen), a boulevard theater and the GOP Varieté Essen also exist in Essen. Since 2010, the Colosseum Theater has served as an auditorium, mainly for dance and music shows.
The Zeche Zollverein is the landmark of Essen and has several museums and places to visit. The Ruhr Museum stands for Ruhr region culture. It occupies the largest part of the mine and shows the past, present and future of the mining region.
The Red Dot Design Museum is also home to Zeche Zollverein, the largest design exhibition in the world. In the boiler house of the Zeche Zollverein, less art is exhibited in the narrower sense - functional design is the focus here. The main items on display are items of everyday use, from cutlery and kitchen fittings to furniture and office equipment to various cars.
The Folkwang Museum is located in the Rüttenscheid district. The Art Museum houses a large collection of important paintings, sculptures and graphics of world-famous artists as well as an important collection of photographs. In the new building at Museumsplatz there is also the Deutsche Plakatmuseum.
In addition to the large, well-known museums, Essen also has a number of other museums to offer. Also in Rüttenscheid there is the Soul of Africa Museum, the only voodoo museum in Europe. The cathedral in Essen is one of the most important collections of church works in Germany. In the Grugapark there are currently more than 40 sculptures and works of art on display. They range from classical modernity to contemporary art and can be visited, among other things, on guided tours. An ensemble of contemporary sculptures can be found in the Moltkeplatz in the Moltkeviertel.
The Historisches Verein für Stadt und Stifter e (Historisches Verein für Stadt und Stadt Essen), founded in 1880. V. is one of the oldest historical associations in Germany.
A large number of citizens from Essen are concerned with the history of the city of Essen and the districts of Essen, both in general and on a voluntary basis. Most of them have joined together to form the Essen Historical Initiative.
The Essen cinema complex is located in several places: On Kettwiger Strasse is the light castle built in 1928 and renovated in 2003; In addition, the multiplex cinema Cinemaxx, which opened in Berlin square in 1991, as well as some program cinemas. The Lichtburg has the largest cinema hall in Germany with 1250 seats. Film premieres and galas are held here on a regular basis. The Cinemaxx cinema center is the largest multiplex cinema in Germany, with 16 cinemas and a total of 5354 seats. Because of the TV's victory train, in the 1960s and 1970s all cinemas were closed in Essen alone, around all cinemas. After the opening of the Cinemaxx, the number of visitors to the other cinemas in Essen collapsed again, and most of them were closed. In the heart of Essen alone, more than ten cinematic theaters were killed by Cinemaxx. The majority of the closed cinemas were converted into shops, some also into discos and clubs. Some former cinemas are still empty today. Only the Lichtburg and four Essen program cinemas were able to compete against the multiplex cinema. The film theater Astra in Teichstraße is the largest film art theater in the Ruhr area. It can accommodate 430 people. The small cinema Luna in the same complex can accommodate up to 80 people. Opened in 1955, the cinema Eulenspiegel on Steeler Strasse has been one of Essen’s film art theaters since 1980. A special feature is a Wurlitzer silent film organ in the cinema hall and the related cinema museum. In Rüttenscheid the studio is happy. The cinema, located in the Lucky House, is one of the oldest film theaters in the Ruhr area. Also in Rüttenscheid is the Cinema Gallery, the smallest cinema in Essen with 45 seats. Harold and Maude have been on the program every week since 1975. In the north of the city, at Sulterkamp 70 is the Drive-in-Autokino Essen with a capacity of 1000 cars.
The imperfection house (also called UpH) is a cultural institution in the center of Essen. The "Künstlerdorf" offers the possibility of creatives and creators to realize themselves on 4000 square meters, spread over seven floors. No censorship or regulation is required. The only prerequisite is that the activities are legal, creative and open to the public. Other cultural centers include the Carl mine in Altenessen, the Grend cultural center in Steele, and the Kunsthaus Essen in Rellinghausen.
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On 11 April 2006, the city was elected European Capital of Culture 2010 by a seven-member EU jury representing the entire Ruhr area. At the same time, Pécs (Hungary) and Istanbul held the title. In addition to Essen, RUHR.2010 involved the regional association Ruhr, the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia and the initiative group Ruhrgebiet.
The former Loveparade in Berlin was held in Essen at the end of August 2007. From August 23, many clubs in the region were open for special events, until the actual parade ended on August 25. The train was guided through the northern city center and the final demonstration took place at the former Kirmesplatz on Berlin Square.
The theme of each decade is the Essen Light Weeks, which take place annually. From the end of October until the beginning of January of the following year, light installations will be installed on the inner city streets of Essen.
The cultural trail of the city of Essen leads visitors to art and cultural sites between the Market Church and the Museum Folkwang.
In many districts of Essen there are local, civil and transport associations. Eighteen such associations have joined forces in the "Stadtverband der Bürger und Verkehrsvereine Essen". Another association is the Stadtverband Essen (Stadtverband Essen) of the Kleingarten associations, which currently comprises 104 Essen allotments with a total of 250 allotments (as of 2009).
- Borbecker light steam beer
- Borbecker Castle Droplet (herbal liqueur)
- Steeler Krieger (herbal liqueur)
- Waddische Appeltate (Werdener apple pie)
On 30 September 2020, 32.3% of the inhabitants of the Roman Catholic Church (32.9% on 31 December 2019) were Protestant, 22.0% (22.5% at the end of 2019) and 45.7% belong to other or no religious community. Since 2014, the group of people in Essen who belong to a different or non-religious community has been larger than that of Protestant or Roman Catholic Christians. In 2015, 208,713 inhabitants of Essen belonged to the Catholic Church. 144,451 inhabitants were Protestant,
sectarian situation to secularization
Since 1951, the monastery of Essen has been under the direct control of the Pope. The first parish church was probably the parish church. Later St. Gertrud for the northern area (with old food and karnap) and St. Johann for the southern area (with Altendorf, Frohnhausen, Holsterhausen, Frillendorf, Rüttenscheid and Huttrop) of the city Pfarrkirche.
From 1524 onwards evangelical preaching took place in the town. In 1543, an evangelical preacher appeared, and from 1560 onwards German was sung in the St. Gertrudiskirche. In 1563 the Reformation was finally established by the Council of the City. The city tried to consolidate its status as a free imperial city. From 1563, the St. Gertrudiskirche was permanently left to the Protestants for use. After that, the Minster Church took the place of the Essen parish church for Catholics.
Beginning in 1583, the church of Clemenskirche had been preached evangelically in Become. 17. In the 19th century, a reformed community also emerged. Steele became Protestant from 1554. By 1600, almost all of Steele was Protestant, but after that the church was used jointly by the Lutherans, the Reformed and the Catholics, some of them under great friction. In 1609 Kettwig, the entire population converted to a reformed commitment.
In Essen, both confessions were represented side by side. The pen remained Catholic, the city was Protestant. From 1571 onwards there was only one Lutheran community among the Protestants, and from 1655 a reformed community was also recognized by the Council. In 1605, the counter-reformation was able to take root in part, which resulted in the St. Gertrudiskirche becoming partly Catholic again. The city had to recognize the ultimate abandonment of freedom of the empire in 1670, but this had no effect on the sectarian differences that existed up to now. Until 1802, the church matters were handled by the council or the monastery. The reformed community was autonomous. The relationship between the two denominations was roughly balanced.
In 1802, the Lutheran community of Essen was assigned to the Prussian Consistorium of the County of Mark, in 1809 to the Klevisch-Lutheran Consistorium of the Grand Duchy of Berg and from 1815 to the Düsseldorf district synod. It thus belonged to the Protestant Church in Prussia or its later Rhineland Provincial Church. Eat became the seat of a superintendent who later gave birth to the circle of the church of Essen. This was divided into the three churches of Essen-Mitte, Essen-Nord and Essen-Süd within the present-day Protestant Church in the Rhineland. Today, the three church circles comprise a total of 30 church congregations. Together with the three church circles, they have formed the Evangelical City Church Association Essen since 1972. Since 1. On July 28th 2008, the Church of Essen again formed a circle of churches. The district of Kettwig, which, despite being conscripted in 1975, still belongs to the circle of churches Ruhr with its headquarters in Mülheim an der Ruhr, is excluded.
In response to the forced unification between the Lutheran Church and the reformed tradition to the Protestant Church of the Old Prussian Union, the Old Lutheran Evangelical Lutheran Church was founded in Prussia. The Altlutherans insisted on their freedom of religion by demanding unrestricted Lutheran services, constitution and teaching. After a hard period of persecution by the state, it was able to join King Friedrich Wilhelm IV in 1841. and has been recognized. In 1844, the Evangelical-Lutheran (old Lutheran) parish of Essen was established by the introduction of the Union in Essen; It is now part of the parish of Westphalia of the self-employed Evangelical-Lutheran Church. By choosing the parish priest there is the propagation of the West of the self-employed Evangelical-Lutheran Church.
Old church in Essen
market church, first Protestant church in Essen
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Essen, Bartningkirche of 2010 and Propsteikirche
Roman Catholic Church
In 1802, the Catholic parishes fell to the Archbishop of Cologne as a result of the abolition of the foundation. In 1958, Essen became the seat of its own diocese. The parishes of the Kettwig district, which was founded in 1975, are still part of the Ratingen decantat and thus part of the Cologne Archbishop. In 1968, the 82nd German Catholic Day will take place in Essen.
At present, 58 parish communities belong to the municipal dekanate of Essen, which is divided into the dekanate of Essen-Mitte, Essen-Altendorf, Essen-Borbeck, Essen-Heisingen-copper-dreh, Essen-Rellinghausen, Essen-Steele, Essen-Stoppenberg and Essen-WEREN. Together they form the Catholic Church Association/Municipal Association (K. d. E. R.) (since 1925) as a provider of church tasks at urban level (family education, youth welfare/youth vocational assistance, counseling services, public relations) and as a service provider and association of municipalities. The catholic church is centrally accessible in the catholic town house on the Bernestraße. The city's decantation of Essen comprises about a quarter of Catholics and the municipalities of the bistum.
Meanwhile, however, diocesan decisions have changed the structure of Essen's diocesan. Since 2009, the city of Essen has only ten so-called large parishes (church bodies), each comprising several parishes (parishes). In the long term, up to 26 Catholic churches in Essen will also be abandoned (cf. Furthermore, the contents of the town church institutions (e.g. family education, youth care) and pastoral services (e.g. counseling services) will be reduced and diocesan will be merged into new central support structures. The number of Catholic daycare centers will also be adapted to financial and demographic developments; their content management and management are also centralized diocesan.
Essen owes its important cathedral treasure to the principals. At the center is the Golden Madonna. Built in 1980, it is the first fully plastic image of the Mother of God and is considered one of the most important works of art in the West. After Pope John XXIII. In 1959, Mary became the patron of the bistum of Essen. The figure was exhibited in public by the then bishop Franz Hengsbach at the cathedral of Essen. Since that time it has been the destination of many pilgrims.
The Pius Brotherhood’s priority is the third priority established in Germany by the Roman Catholic traditionalists.
St. Maria Rosenkranz in Essen-Bochold
St. Antonius Abbas in Essen-Schönebeck
St. Georg in Essen-Heisingen
St. Gertrud in downtown Essen
St. Hubertus in Essen-Bergerhausen
St. Mariä Conception in Essen-Holsterhausen
Three Orthodox communities celebrate their services in Catholic churches in Essen: the Russian Orthodox community to St. Unselfish cosmas and Damian (St. Augustine, Frohnhausen), the Serbian Orthodox (St. Stephanus, Stoppenberg) and the Romanian Orthodox Christians (St. Ewaldi, Alteneessen).
Other churches and Christian communities
There are several free churches, including several Protestant Free Church (Baptists), an Advent community, communes of the Evangelical-Methodist Church, Free Evangelical Communities (FeG), the SELK, 13 parishes of the New Apostolic Church (NAK), three parishes of the Apostolic community and the Old Catholic Church. Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons are also represented.
The Jewish Cultural Community has more than 900 members. The municipality has a synagogue on Sedanstraße, a mikwe, a cemetery, a library, a children's group, youth group and women's choir. There's no community. Until their destruction at Pogromnacht there was a synagogue in Steele, which was opened in 1883. The Old Synagogue, inaugurated in 1913, is located in the center of Essen, whose exterior remained largely intact during the Nazi period. After being unused, she bought the city of Essen and used it as a museum for industrial design, among other things. Finally, after a two-year reconstruction phase, it was opened as a house of Jewish culture in July 2010.
In 1988 a community of friends of the Western Buddhist Order established itself in the Hercules Street in Essen-Stadtmitte. The group of cantons Essen e. V. is in the tradition of Rinzai-Zen and was founded by the German teacher Rei Shin Sensei. Since 2007, a group of Ole Nydahl's diamond path Buddhism has been present in Essen.
Increased immigration from Muslim countries, especially Turkey, has also led to the establishment of Muslim religious houses in recent decades. Initially, these were only "backyard mosques". Major representative mosques have also been built. In 2002 the Fatih Mosque was opened in the Katernberg district, in Altendorf the DITIB Central Mosque of Essen has been under construction since 2009. In 2016, there were 24 Muslim places of worship in Essen, seven of which belong to the DITIB.
There are two Gurdwara in Essen. The Gurdwara Dasmesh Darbar Essen e.V. is located on the Hercules Street in the eastern district, and the Gurdwara Nanaksar Sat Sang Darbar is located on the Bersonstrasse in the northern district. On April 16, 2016, Salafists bombed the latter. Three men were injured, one of them seriously.
There is a Tamil Hindu temple in the eastern district. This is dedicated to the god Murugan and was inaugurated in 2004. The sponsorship association is the Sri Kathirvelauthaswamy Temple e. V.
Rowing plays a very important role in Essen. The roundabout is on the Ruhr and Lake Baldeneysee. In Essen there are six clubs specializing in rowing or owning a rowing ring. Among these are the big clubs ETuF (Essener Turn and Fighting Club) and the RaB (rowing club at Lake Baldeneysee). The hill regatta is also held every two years. The rowing sport is also offered in the Tournament Club of Copper Dreh (TVK).
The most famous football club in Essen is Red-White Essen, which has produced players such as Helmut Rahn, Willi Lippens, Horst Hrubesch and Frank Mill, won the DFB Cup in 1953 and became the German Champion in 1955. The club played last after a bankruptcy in the NRW league before climbing back to the fourth-class regional league in the 2010/2011 season. The home games will be played at the Essen stadium on the harbor road. In the 2005/06 season, the audience average was 12,291. Also of greater importance is Schwarz-Weiss Essen, whose football division became the German cup winner in 1959 and has played in the five-class Upper League of Lower Rhine since the 2012/13 season. Jens Lehmann, the former German national goalkeeper who was born in Essen, played for this club, as did Oliver Bierhoff, the current manager of the national team.
The SGS Essen women's soccer team, whose home matches will also be held at the Essen Stadium on the HafenStrasse, has been playing in the Bundesliga since 2004 and reached the semi-finals in 2007 and 2010, and the final in the DFB Cup in 2014 and 2020.
The second largest sports club in Essen is a multi-national German champion, cup winner and European cup winner in handball. After winning the European Cup, the club lost its license for the Bundesliga and entered the regional league in 2005. The 2009 season was almost perfect (63:01 points) and the 2 nd Bundesliga was successful. Since the 2007/2008 season, the club of the Margaret Heights, which hosts its home games in Stoppenberg in the hall "Am Hello" there, has been once again first class. However, it has been established since November 2008 that the club is about to face another forced downturn due to bankruptcy, this time probably into the second Bundesliga. As the seventh in the 2010/11 season in the 2nd Northern League, the club qualified for the 2nd league, which was in existence from the 2011/12 season. In 2011/12, the TUSEM became the second division vice-champion and thus made a return to the first division.
The basketball players of the ETB Wohbau Baskets Essen have been participating in the ProA since the rise from the ProB in the 2007/08 season, which is the second highest class in Germany. The basketball division of the ETB was founded in 1960. The home games will be held in the new hall "Am Hello".
The men of VV Humann Essen play in the second Bundesliga. In addition, the national beach volleyball team Katrin Holtwick/Ilka Semmler plays for the Seaside Beach Club Essen. The team became a German champion in 2009 and 2012.
In 2019, the Assindia Cardinals played in the regional league West, the third highest class, first in the regular season, and both won the upcoming matches against Oldenburg and Berlin, thus rising again to the GFL2. The home games are the first team in the sports park "Am Hello" in Essen-Stoppenberg.
Since 2007, the Rugby Union Team has been at the Grashof Rugby Club in Essen. Originally a company of the Grashof School in Bredeney, the team has been playing in the second Bundesliga since the 2016/17 season. The team's youth teams are several German school champions.
In Essen there are various clubs offering field hockey: HTC Copper Dreh, located at the Eisenhammer, the Essen Turn and Fechtclub (ETuF), which is located directly on Lake Baldeneysee, as well as the Hockeyclub Essen (HCE) and the Essen Turner-Bund Schwarz-Weiss (ETB).
The SHC Rockets Essen 1985 is home to one of the oldest and most member inline skater hockey clubs in Europe. In 2009 the club became the European Cup winner of the juniors. In 2011, the Rockets presented the European Cup in the Eissporthalle at Westbahnhof and won the Wildcard as the outsider of the 2011 European Cup. The SHC Rockets are playing in the Inline Skaterhockey Bundesliga. In 2012, the rockets were German cup winners.
Essen has a hockey tradition since the 1960s and was served by the association ESC Moskitos Essen from 1994 to 2008. V. in the German Bundesliga and the professional league respectively. In 1999, Essen was the German champion of the first Bundesliga and then played in the DEL. From 2008, the club played in the regional league, because it had to file for bankruptcy and therefore have to drop off. In the season 2009/2010 he became German Champion of the regional league and has entered the upper league.
The ice skater Nicole Schott of the Essen youth ice skating association e. V. In 2012 and 2015, she became German champion for the second time and became the first eater to win this title.
Since 1963, Germany’s oldest ever continuous marathon round the Lake Baldeneysee has taken place. In addition, the Essen company has been running since June 2011. In the course of the company, groups and teams from various companies, associations and organizations from Essen will be represented. The track is five and a half kilometers long and runs through Essen-Rüttenscheid from the Aalto theater to the Grugapark. In addition, the Essen Onko-Run takes place once a year in the Grugapark. The proceeds of the courses will be used by the oncology and the cancer counseling in Essen.
Since 2009 there is a Lacrosse club with the Essen Pirates, which plays in the second Bundesliga West.
25 sailing clubs with more than 3400 members make sailing on Lake Baldeneysee with the orientation of many races of the league of supra-regional importance. International championships are also held here.
The Canoeing Community of Essen is one of the most successful canoe clubs in Germany and has already produced several world champions and Olympic champions in canoe sport, including Thomas Reineck, Olaf Winter and Tomasz Wylenzek.
A well-known table tennis club is SV Moltkeplatz Essen. He was founded in 1953 and was the club of four times German vice-champion from 1964 to 1970. In 1966, he was one of the founding members of the Table Tennis Bundesliga and played in this class for four years from 1966 to 1970. After the descent in 1971, it was possible to climb again in 1978, but the class did not hold. Wilfried Lieck is one of the most famous players.
There are three golf clubs in Essen, the Golf Club Essen-Heidhausen (27 holes), the Golf Course ETuF Essen (9 holes) and the Golf House Oefte (18 holes). All three clubs regularly organize tournaments.
Founded in 2009, SC 147 Essen has been playing in the 1st place since 2011. Snooker Bundesliga and became German Champion in 2016. 1. SC Essen played from 1999 to 2002 and from 2004 to 2008 in the 1. Snooker Bundesliga and became the German runner-up in 2001.
In the largest sports club in Essen, the fairytale parish Horst 1881 e. V. - There is a wheelchair dancing group for all sports. Some couples also compete or belong to the cross-club formation NRWheelers.
The city of Essen was home to four ring clubs, of which only two are still active today. ASV Essen-West 03 (formerly Bundesliga) and KSV Essen-Kray have dissolved, only the TV Essen-Dellwig 1893 (Oberligist, formerly Bundesliga) and the Germania 1888 Essen-Altenessen (district league) are still active.
SG Essen (the starting community of many Essen swimming clubs) is a national and international association. SG Essen swims in the first Bundesliga.
Essen currently operates the following swimming pools (in 2017): the Grugabad, the sports pool at the Thurmfeld, the Kettwig swimming pool, the Hesse open-air swimming pool in Dellwig, the Oststadt swimming pool, the Friedrichsbad swimming pool, the Rüttenscheid swimming pool, the North-East indoor pool, the Alte bathing establishment in Altenessen, the indoor pool Copper dreh, the indoor pool Borbeck, the indoor pool at the Südpark in Kray and the outdoor pool in Steele, managed by the swimming club SV Steele in 1911. Until the year 2000 the Kuhlhopbad existed in the north of Essen and the Nöggerathbad open-air pool in the west of Essen. Both were closed in order to be able to sell the land as a land for profit. In addition, The Leisure Pool Oasis in Frohnhausen was closed on 23 April 2010 and demolished in early 2014. The Gildehofbad in the city center was a fun bath that was in operation from 1987 to 1992. Since the end of the 1990s the town library has been located in the premises. The main swimming pool was closed on December 30, 2015 and the German Short Railway Championships were held here in 2008.
The Rhein-Ruhr Olympic base, based in Essen, is a multi-sport and transnational advisory and support facility for top and young athletes and supports around 400 cadres in 17 sports. The site’s design includes the professional management of all activities that promote talent and accompany training. The Olympic base is located in the immediate vicinity of the Alfried Krupp Hospital, which ensures high-quality medical care for the top athletes.
Food is the home of the Roller Derby League. Roller Derby is a full-contact sport with roller shoes from the United States, which is mostly practiced by women. Gentle Roller Derby is sometimes called Merby (Men’s Roller Derby). Ruhrpott Roller Derby is a flat track scooter derby league based in Essen. The League was founded in 2009 and consists of an A-Team, Ruhrpott Roller Girls and a B-Team. Both teams compete against teams from other leagues. The association is a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA). In April 2013 Ruhrpott was admitted as a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association and was admitted to the WFTDA member league in October 2014.
The Ruhrpott Roller Girls play the first Bundesliga for the 2020 season and reached second place in 2019. The team is currently 61st among the European teams.
The city of Essen has been awarded honorary citizenship since 1879. The following is a complete list of all honorary citizens:
- 1879 Prince Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor
- 1888 Friedrich Hammacher, Essen's empire and local politician, lawyer and business leader
- 1895 Peter Beising, Catholic theologist
- 1896 Friedrich Alfred Krupp, industrieller
- 1901 Heinrich Carl Sölling, Kaufmann und Founder
- 1906 Erich Zweigert, Mayor from 1886 to 1906
- 1912 Margarethe Krupp, founder of the foundation (u. a. Margarethenhöhe)
- 1917 Paul von Hindenburg, General Field Marshal and Chief of Army, later President
- 1930 Paul Goerens, German metallurgist and professor
- 1948 Victor Niemeyer, Councilor (posthumous lent)
- 2007 Berthold Beitz, Chairman of the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-Stiftung (sole award of the Honorary Citizenship of the City of Essen since the existence of the Federal Republic)
In 1890, the town of Steele was awarded to Carl Humann, the discoverer of the Pergamonaltar, and in 1890, the local municipalities granted honorary citizenship rights to local figures. After the confiscation, this practice was abolished.
Since 1961, the honor ring of the city of Essen has been awarded as the highest award, which was awarded to Berthold Beitz, a citizen of honor in 1983. Gustav Heinemann, Mayor and later President of the Confederation, Franz Cardinal Hengsbach, the first bishop of Essen and several former mayors of the city are also winners of the ring. In addition to the honor ring, an honor plaque is awarded as the second highest award in the city.
Since 2004, the city’s Youth Welfare Office has also awarded the food prize to young people or young adults in various categories.
Instead of a Golden Book, the steel book commissioned by the then Mayor Theodor Reismann-Grone has been available in Essen since 1933. He explained the name election by saying that the rise of Essen was only possible by the steel industry and that the term steel book was thus more suitable. The guest book was used for the first time at the wedding of the Gaul’s Josef Terboven on 28 June. In June 1934 Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring also appeared as a witness. After the end of World War II, it was decided to replace the steel book. Since the band did not bear the insignia of Nazism, it was also used for the new band. The pages taken with the registrations from 1934 to 1945 are now in the municipal archive of Essen.
The main belt asteroid (133243) Essen was named after the city after being discovered on 2 September 2003 from the Walter Hohmann Observatory in the Schuir district of Essen.